Research Notes S Bolstad

Research Topic: History of Anime and Manga; Japanese animated shows/graphic novels

The Anime Encyclopedia; (Revised and Expanded Edition) A guide to Japanese animation since 1917

Call Number: NC1766.J3C53 (4th Floor)

By: Jonathan Clements; Helen McCarthy
Published By: Stone Bridge Press; Berkeley, California
Publishing Year: 2006


Early Anime: (Pg. 169)

There is much controversy about what the first anime in Japan actually was.
Naoki Matsumoto Discovery: 2005; scrap of film (barely three seconds long) was found; Image: a boy drawing the japanese characters for "moving pictures" on a blackboard; did not help much in determining the date for the first anime; don't know who drew the film strip, or when; much confusion and false reports on how old it could be; within a few days of its discovery, it was being said that the short "anime" could have been from "shortly after 1900".

1915: 21 foreign cartoons known to have been screened in Japan; may have stimulated home experiments

Political: The controversy of Matsumoto's film strip may have had political motives; "a 1907 date would allow Japan to claim to have developed animation independent of known Western examples"; "A pre-1907 date would've allowed Japan to claim to be the pioneer of the entire medium"

It is believed that the first completed Japanese animated film was Mukuzo Imokawa the Doorman; (Imokawa Mukuzo Genkanban no Maki, 1917): A five minute short by Oten Shimokawa (a 26-year-old amateur filmmaker who was prev. an editorial assistant for Tokyo Puck magazine). It is said he may have experimented with the "chalk board method"- drew a picture, then erased and drew a new one (used a camera; animation). He may have also drawn on film. Shimokawa's experiments lasted six months and five short films, before he gave up (Or at least, that's what's believed by Japanese sources.)- no print of his work survives.
Seitaro Kitayama- founded Japan's first animation studio; but by 1930 he, too, left anime behind and went to work in live-action newsreels

Not many of the earliest animators' works survived- part of the reason was the Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923; Kitayama fled to find work in Osaka- the younger Yamamoto stayed behind in Tokyo and worked on some animation (a few of his works include The Mountain Where The Old Women Are Abandoned (Obasuteyama, 1924) and The Tortoise and the Hare (1924)

Stereotypes and Archetypes (Pg.618): yakugara character cliches established in Japanese theater; Ex. Kabuki- Divided into protagonists and antagonists; Protagonists- gruff/hot-headed (aragoto), refined/elegant/or even effeminate (wagoto); oppose evil with divine justice, though often destroyed by their efforts (jitsugoto); Women kabuki stereotypes- wakaonnagata- youthful princesses, courtesans, damsels in distress, etc., kashagata- samurai wives (often good with swords or frying pans), akuba- archetypal bad-girls w/street smarts, tattoos, and sass; three main different age groups- young, middle-aged, old; Villains: evil princesses ("nation demolishers"), evil samurai, evil retainers, dishonest clerks, henchmen (comic relief), and apprentices; catalyst that drives hero to action- usually the death of a family member; mentor figure pushes hero to cope with guilt; mentor will most likely have a tragic fate (illness or affliction they kept from the hero or possibly sacrifice), childish sidekick (comic relief), dark mysterious character, plus a few battles- carries a story probably for a good 26 episodes.
Colorful hairstyles- help aid with identification
Female manga/anime- group of five heroine- or more precisely one point of identification and four supporting characters (removes men from the equation)
Female hair- often many accessories (also to help with identification)

Ratings and Box Office (pg. 527): Ratings were very low

Anime And The Art Of Adaptation: Eight Famous Works from Page to Screen

Published By: McFarland & Company, Inc.
Author: Dani Cavallaro
Publishing Year: 2010

Pg. 99: Romeo x Juliet- (dir. Fumitoshi Oizaki, 2007); confirms Julie Sanders' statement that "movement into a different generic mode can encourage a reading Shakespeare from a new or revised point of view"- adds more of a twist, boldly bringing out more supernatural; Romance meets revolution; finale- Romeo and Juliet sent to another dimension (therefor being ultimately revived)

Pg. 38: Gankutsuou: The Count of Monte Cristo (2004-2005) (Mahiro Maeda) is an example of an anime centered around real events that have taken place throughout history; revolves around the Napoleonic era; based off of the novel The Count of Monte Cristo (1845-1846) by one of the most revered storytellers of all times- Alexandre Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie; anime- able to combine giant robots, expensive spaceships, mansions, operas, horse-drawn-carriages

Manga: Sixty Years of Japanese Comics

Published By: Laurence King Publishing Ltd.
Author: Paul Gravett
Publishing Year: 2004

Pg. 136: Comiket- Many students have chosen to drop out of school to join the massive, highly creative otaku community of manga and anime fans; the most visible otaku community in media is a part of Comiket- the ten thousand or so cosplayers; the cosplayers only represent a small percentage of Comiket visitors; Inside Tokyo's Ariake Big Sight venue- nearly 1/2 million people flooded into the 63rd Comiket (summer of 2002); Comiket has grown to become the biggest cultural gathering in Japan; spans over three days- Day one: manga, anime, and science fiction (general audience), Day two: game characters and variations of Shojo manga genre, Day three: studies of manga and anime culture.
Rorikon: "Lolita complex"- "adult manga" starring cute or kawaii young girls; genre spread in late 1890s; adopted as a style by grown women- started dressing and acting like innocent girls; fantasy turned sour in 1989 when 26-year-old Tsutomu Miyazaki was arrested for abducting, murdering, and mutilating 3 preschool girls- Found to be a withdrawn and obsessive fan of anime and manga; media panic ensued, worldwide campaign started by mothers to regulate 'harmful manga'; authorities cracked down on publishers and retailers; respected senior mangaka set up Association to Protect Freedom of Expression in Comics

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