Research Notes Hazy

Aaron T. Beck
A. John Rush
Brian F. Shaw
Gary Emery
Cognitive Therapy Of Depression
Published By
The Guilford Press
Place of Publication
New York, N.Y.
Date Of Publication

Chapter 9: Focus on Target Symptoms
The Therapist needs to discuss the patients goals with them in order to reach which "target" problem to aim at and what methods to use. The cognitive therapist then formulates the patient's problems in terms of the thoughts and images underlying the patient's responses.
The Depressed person tends to regard himself, his experiences, and his future in a negative way.
Most depressed patients report some degree of sadness or unhappiness.
Self-Sympathy procedures are particularly helpful who want to cry but are not able to.
Traditionally men in our society have trouble crying but as sex roles change we are finding more and more females with the same problem.
Induced Anger
Experiencing anger often often can counter act the patient's feeling of sadness.
In the office the therapist can use techniques for inducing anger to help alleviate sadness.
After the patient has learned how to use these techniques in the office he is encouraged to use them between sessions.
To prevent becoming bogged down in anger, he is instructed to sharply limit the duration of the expression of angry feelings and to follow them with some sort of distraction.
Pg. 274
Patients often use diversion to reduce (temporarily) nearly all forms of painful affect.
When teaching diversion as a coping skill, the therapist first asks the patient to rate his degree of sadness.
The therapist then have the patient focus on some item in the office, such as a plate, the light switch, or a piece of furniture and describe this in detail.
The patient then re-rates his degree of sadness which has usually diminished to some degree.
Patients often report some form of anxiety as a problem that accompanies their depression or a problem as the depression lifts.
Some patients are excessively disturbed by the symptoms of anxiety because they do not label this emotion correctly.
Some patients have to learn to increase their tolerance for a certain amount of anxiety.

Peter J. Bieling
Martin M. Antony
Ending The Depression Cycle
Published by
New Harbinger Publications, Inc.
Place of Publication
Oakland, CA
Date of Publication

Major Depressive Disorder
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), the most common form of clinical depression, is a condition associated with periods of severe depression lasting two weeks, almost every day most of the day.
When untreated the average episode of depression lasts four months or longer, usually followed by a complete remission of symptoms. However, about a quarter of people with MDD continue to experience some symptoms for a longer period of time, and about 5 to 10 percent of individuals with MDD experience severe depression chronically for at least two years, without a significant break.
To receive a diagnosis of MDD, an individual must experience at least five symptoms from a list of nine. And at least one of them have to be

  • Low Mood
  • A lost of interest or pleasure in almost all of his or her usual activities.

In addition to having at least of one of these two core features there must be at least four additional features from the following list.

  • Increases or decreases in appetite or weight.
  • Changes in sleep (ether insomnia or sleeping too much)
  • Changes in physical activity (moving very slow or becoming physically agitated and fidgety)
  • Feeling Tired
  • Feeling Worthless or excessively guilty.
  • Difficulty concentrating or making decisions.
  • Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.

Depression is a serious condition that ca interfere significantly with your function across a wide range of life domains.
Depressed mood is often associated with other problems and symptoms, such as anxiety, fatigue, lack of interest, pessimistic thinking, suicidal thoughts, and disturbances in appetite, sleep, and concentration.
A high percentage of individuals who overcome depression experience a return of their symptoms at some point in the future.

Myths About Depression

  • Partial recovery is enough

It isn't. If your gonna start the race finish it.

  • Treatment should stop as soon as your better.

Keep going, they will help you stay "happy"
Pg.23 and 24.

Van Praag
Can Stress Cause Depression?
Published by
England Elsevier Inc.
Date published

Psychopathological characteristics
Mood lowering is a latecomer, if it occurs at all. Some episodes remain restricted to disturbed anxiety and aggression relation.
A degree of fearfulness and aggressivity not seldom persist after remission.

M Popa
Depression - Causes and remedies
Published by
Elsevier SAS
Date published

The events of life are present in all forms of depression.
The Major cause of events who determine depression is the behavior of others, weather or not it is a reaction to the subjects behavior.

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