Class Work S Bolstad

Thesis Statement: The history of anime and manga has long since been a controversial battle.

Format for Outline

I. Introduction

A. Background (give us some interesting background information about your topic)

  1. Interesting bit #1: No one knows what the first anime actually was
  2. Interesting bit #2: There is believed to have been political motives in naming a date for what the first anime may have been
  3. Interesting bit #3: Anime and manga has grown to become the biggest cultural community in Japan

B. Thesis Statement: The history of anime and manga has long since been a controversial battle.

II. First subtopic: The First Anime… (Pg.169- The Anime Encyclopedia)

A. First Point: No one knows what the first anime was

  1. supporting evidence #1: Not many of the earliest works survived, partly due to the Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923
  2. supporting evidence #2: Many believe the first anime was a film strip that was barely 3 seconds long, depicting the image of a boy writing the Japanese characters for "moving pictures" on a blackboard. It was known as the Naoki Matsumoto Discovery (2005)

B. Second Point: The controversy behind the Naoki Matsumoto Discovery may have had political motives.

  1. supporting evidence #1: There were many false reports on how old it was. Within a few days of its discovery it was being said that the short strip of film was dating back to "shortly after 1900".
  2. supporting evidence #2: A 1907 date would've given Japan the right to claim independence in animation. A pre-1907 date would've allowed them to claim to be the pioneers of animation.

II. Second subtopic: Stereotypes and Archetypes…

A. First Point: There are many different stereotypes used in establishing heroes and villains. (Pg.618- The Anime Encyclopedia)

  1. supporting evidence #1: yakugara character cliches established in Japanese theater; Ex. Kabuki- Divided into protagonists and antagonists; Protagonists- gruff/hot-headed (aragoto), refined/elegant/or even effeminate (wagoto); oppose evil with divine justice, though often destroyed by their efforts (jitsugoto); Women kabuki stereotypes- wakaonnagata- youthful princesses, courtesans, damsels in distress, etc., kashagata- samurai wives (often good with swords or frying pans), akuba- archetypal bad-girls w/street smarts, tattoos, and sass;
  2. supporting evidence#2: Villains: evil princesses ("nation demolishers"), evil samurai, evil retainers, dishonest clerks, henchmen (comic relief), and apprentices

B. Second Point: Typical Storyline (Pg.618- The Anime Encyclopedia)

  1. supporting evidence #1: three main different age groups- young, middle-aged, old;
  2. supporting evidence #2: catalyst that drives hero to action- usually the death of a family member; mentor figure pushes hero to cope with guilt; mentor will most likely have a tragic fate (illness or affliction they kept from the hero or possibly sacrifice), childish sidekick (comic relief), dark mysterious character, plus a few battles- carries a story probably for a good 26 episodes.

IV. Third subtopic: The Darker Side of Anime…

A. First point: Comiket (Pg.136- Manga: 60 Years of Japanese Comics)

  1. supporting evidence #1: Many students have chosen to drop out of school to join the massive, highly creative otaku community of manga and anime fans; the most visible otaku community in media is a part of Comiket- the ten thousand or so cosplayers; the cosplayers only represent a small percentage of Comiket visitors; Inside Tokyo's Ariake Big Sight venue- nearly 1/2 million people flooded into the 63rd Comiket (summer of 2002)
  2. supporting evidence #2: nearly 1/2 million people flooded into the 63rd Comiket (summer of 2002); Comiket has grown to become the biggest cultural gathering in Japan; spans over three days- Day one: manga, anime, and science fiction (general audience), Day two: game characters and variations of Shojo manga genre, Day three: studies of manga and anime culture.

B. Second Point: Rorikon (Pg.136- Manga: 60 Years of Japanese Comics)

  1. supporting evidence #1: "Lolita complex"- "adult manga" starring cute or kawaii young girls; genre spread in late 1890s; adopted as a style by grown women- started dressing and acting like innocent girls
  2. supporting evidence #2: fantasy turned sour in 1989 when 26-year-old Tsutomu Miyazaki was arrested for abducting, murdering, and mutilating 3 preschool girls- Found to be a withdrawn and obsessive fan of anime and manga; media panic ensued, worldwide campaign started by mothers to regulate 'harmful manga'; authorities cracked down on publishers and retailers; respected senior mangaka set up Association to Protect Freedom of Expression in Comics

V. Conclusion: A restatement of the main points of your paper:

A. 1st Point: The First Anime

B. 2nd Point: Stereotypes and Archetypes

C. 3rd point: The Darker Side of Anime

D. Interesting Ending: (Pg.527- The Anime Encyclopedia) Anime ratings were very low in 2006, but I think those low numbers are changing. Anime is slowly, but surely rising, and it has yet to reach its peak.

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